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More women pursue entrepreneurial careers "If opening a business demands courage, opening one in the aftermath of the worst economic downturn since the Depression demands a special steeliness, especially for female entrepreneurs. Because women owned businesses are concentrated in retail and service Moncler Down Jackets Women With Hooded Zip Khaki industries think Este Lauder, Coco Chanel, Mrs. Fields Cookies, even Zipcar they were among the first to feel the downturn. Now, in a fragile recovery, the business climate requires other qualities, like resourcefulness and patience." Their strategies? Keep debt low and bootstrap at every opportunity. Our guest bloggers are not employed or directed Moncler Shirts by the Monitor and the views expressed are the bloggers own, as is responsibility for the content of their blogs. To add or view a comment Moncler Coats Women Mid Length Double Hooded Plaid Coffee Blue on a guest blog, please go to the blogger s own site by clicking on the link above.

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Morss Instablog Page 17 Examine Table 1. It provides data on what OECD countries with per capita incomes of $30,000 or more pay for health care, both as a percent of GDP and on a per capita basis. The US spends far more by both measures than any other country. And what do American Moncler Shop London citizens get for these outlays? The two most commonly used indicators of health system quality are infant mortality and life expectancy. The US has higher mortality and lower life expectancy than any of the other 15 OECD countries! So the US spends more by far than any other OECD country on health care, and gets the lowest payoff. Table 1. Health Care s and Outcomes, OECD Countries, 2007 It is true that US obesity rates are higher in the US than in any of the countries listed, and growing medical costs from the US overweight/obesity epidemic are soaring.[1] But this health problem does not explain the differences between what the US pays and what it gets in return relative to other countries. Table 2 provides for buck measures. I have converted child mortality to child survival so that a bigger positive number is good. I have then divided the child survival and life expectancy indicators by per capita health expenses. The resulting indicators are proxies for the efficiency of each country health care system. Table 2 Health Care Efficiency Indicators By these indicators, Japan is by far the most efficient deliverer of health services. Of course, other factors are at work. Maybe because the Japanese are heavy smokers (25% of Japanese adults smoke, 15% of Americans smoke), their obesity rates are extremely low (4% of the Japanese are obese, 34% of Americans are obese)[2]. Smokers die young, and that cuts down the health care bill for old people. Overall, the US is at the bottom of the list by a large margin. What can explain why the US is so at delivering health services? The final column in Table 2 shows what percent of health outlays are paid for by government. The US is at the bottom of the list. When I analyzed the data, I found that as the government payment share increases, the efficiency indicators improve. More specifically, the government share explains approximately 45% of the variation in both efficiency measures. Political ideologues might draw the conclusion from this that medicine is more efficient than private medicine. Moncler Down Jackets Women Long Down Coats Deep Red I offer a different explanation. I qualify for Medicare, the largest government insurance program, and it appears to run extremely smoothly. The US has far more health care providers and health insurance companies than any other nation. This requires a tremendous amount of back office Moncler 2012 Women 0019 paperwork because each provider and insurer has their own standards for what they will pay for and how much. I hypothesize that all the back office work increases health costs significantly. Table 3 provides information on health expenditures by age bracket. Note that the mean expenditure for people 65 and over was $, much more than for any other age bracket.

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